Latent Tree Language Model
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (2016)
In this paper we introduce Latent Tree Language Model (LTLM), a novel approach to language modeling that encodes syntax and semantics of a given sentence as a tree of word roles. The learning phase iteratively updates the trees by moving nodes according to Gibbs sampling. We introduce two algorithms to infer a tree for a given sentence. The first one is based on Gibbs sampling. It is fast, but does not guarantee to find the most probable tree. The second one is based on dynamic programming. It is slower, but guarantees to find the most probable tree. We provide comparison of both algorithms. We combine LTLM with 4-gram Modified Kneser-Ney language model via linear interpolation. Our experiments with English and Czech corpora show significant perplexity reductions (up to 46% for English and 49% for Czech) compared with standalone 4-gram Modified Kneser-Ney language model.